Join-Stock Company 
Research and Design Institute for Atomic and Power Pumpbuilding



Innovations

Solar Power Plants

  

Being an established leader in the field of pumpbuilding, JSC VNIIAEN has continuously broadened and improved range of the developed equipment considering the latest achievements of science and technology. Implementation of one of the alternative energy sources is the one of the world power industry segment being dynamically developed. Equipment that allows producing electrical and thermal energy using renewable sources (sun, wind, water and etc.) shall replace traditional generating capacities (TPP, NPP and so on).

In keeping with the commitments undertaken by Ukraine at the international level (Paris Climate Agreement, 2015), all NPPs shall be completely shut down till 2035 and total amount of electricity generation obtained from alternative sources have to grow significantly (up to 25%). Against a background of rising electricity tariffs, an issue of alternative electricity sources finding is of particular relevance.

 

The most attractive regions in Ukraine in respect to use and conversion the solar and wind power are the Black Sea and Azov Sea, mountainous areas of Crimea and Carpathians as well as Odesa, Kherson and Mykolaiv regions. According to Ukrainian hydrometeorological center (see Global horizontal irradiation maps) average annual of solar irradiation in Sumy region is 3.16 kW/m2/day, and its value increases up to 5.3 kW/m2/day during the period from May to August. This indicator is in a good agreement with indicators of the most part of Western Europe countries, where the solar power industry develops rapidly.

 

 

Based on the above as well as concerning the existing staff and technical capacity, in 2017 JSC VNIIAEN participated actively in development and implementation of equipment using alternative energy sources. Institute employees have analyzed local and foreign experience of the similar equipment using (solar panels, wind-powered generators, heat pumps, etc.) as well as they have studied the possibility and reasonability of its use in conditions of Sumy region. The result is that the solar power plant of the rated power of 4.0 kW has been developed and mounted on the roof of the Institute's engineering building on their own.

 Solar power plant may be used in two main modes:

- electrical consumer autonomous operation ensuring (main power supply is performed by the solar power plant, in case of insufficient amount of electric energy produced by the solar power plant, it shall be connected to electrical grid);

- electrical consumer standby power supply ensuring (main power supply is performed by electrical grid, and the solar power plant shall be connected in case of curtailment or performance degradation of the electrical grid).

Surplus of electric energy may be supplied to the electrical grid (when the amount of produced electricity exceeds the amount of electricity being consumed) at feed-in tariffs. This in turn enables to derive an income and reduce a payback period of financial resources that had been invested in purchase of the equipment intended for the solar power plant.

The consumer number and their operation required amount of electricity need to be defined for calculating the solar power plant power. It should be taken to the account that the solar power plant does not operate in the night and it is not sufficiently effective in the evening twilight, precisely at a time when peak times of electric consumption comes.

Before purchasing the solar power plant for household use, it is worth thinking, how much electric energy do you really need? When using solar power in the home, the consumers of electric energy will be lighting equipment, refrigerator, TV set, washing machine, microwave oven, air conditioner, autonomous systems for water supply and heating supply systems, signaling system and video monitoring, computer hardware. In many cases increasing the energy efficiency of the house is significantly cheaper in comparison with purchasing the high-efficiency solar power plant. Actions taken for thermal upgrading of the house and using electric equipment with high class of energy saving (ААА, АА or А) for at-home use will substantially reduce the amount of consumed electric energy and allow finding the lower-capacity solar power plant. The cost-effectiveness of the equipment (solar panels, accumulators, inverter) being purchased, in turn, will allow increasing the daily averaged utilization efficiency of the solar power plant and reduce its payback period.

If the solar power plant is used to power the industry facilities, lighting and heating equipment as well as computer hardware may be the main consumers. Manufacturing equipment (machine-tools, transportation equipment, lifting facilities and so on) is not recommended to connect to the solar power plant due to high inrush currents and imbalance load.

Depending on total power of the electrical consumers and periodicity of their operation, the structure of the solar power plant is calculated and proper components will be selected. Solar panels, charge controller, inverter, accumulators as well as mounting structures are the main structural components.

Solar battery is the combination of photoelectric converters directly converting solar power into direct current. There are monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar batteries. Monocrystalline solar panels have a bit higher efficiency rate (17-22%) then polycrystalline ones (14-18%). Lower price (~ 20%) and efficient operation in bad weather conditions (cloudiness) may be considered an advantage. Manufacturers of new solar panels of both types ensure that their product efficiency will be retained during almost the whole service life (expected decrease in efficiency will be 20-30% for 25 years).

Charge controllers are used for good-quality battery charge and their protection against overdischarge or overcharge. Charge controllers may be autonomous or built into the inverter.

 
 

The main task for the inverter is to convert the direct current obtained by means of solar batteries and accumulators to alternating current of 220V voltage. There are some types of inverters which can ensure different operational modes of the solar power plant (intended for own electrical energy consumption or for its transferring in the electrical grid).

Accumulators store energy that had been produced by solar panels. At this time there are accumulators of different types in the market, they are differ with the cost and useful life (AGM, Gel, Li-ion). Justification of selection of the accumulator specific type as well as their total capacity depends on targets.

 

Layout of mounting construction depends on intended location of solar batteries and their number. Aluminum or galvanized supports are to be used for mounting solar batteries on the ground or on the roof and front of buildings. The most part of the supports being proposed in the market has the static construction having the fixed angle of slope. At the same time the position of the Sun in relation to the Earth changes as during a day and a year. The evidence from operational practices of solar modular blocks show that their efficiency significantly depends on their orientation in relation to the Sun. Tracking systems that allow tracking location of the Sun by means of complex displacement are used for improving the power generation efficiency. The cost of the such systems is frequently higher than the cost of solar panels. At the same time the employees of JSC VNIIAEN have developed and implemented the solar panel supporting structure having the varying angle of slope. This system doesn't require additional investment allowing to change the location of solar panels in dependence on the season and position of the Sun towards the horizon.

 

When calculating the payback period of financial resources provided for the equipment that is necessary to the solar power plant, must take into account its operational modes. If the solar power plant is used to provide backup power and the main amount of electric energy is supplied from the electrical grid, the efficiency of the solar power usage significantly decreases. The solar power plant operation in autonomous mode is more effective, because in this case solar power being obtained by solar batteries will be used to the full. The basic law of the electric power industry should also be considered: the efficiency of investments increases with the power, in other words, more powerful electric power plant will be repaid more much faster than a less powerful one.

The level of the annual average global insolation may be divided in three periods according hydrometeorological data: this level achieves a maximum in summer, its minimum is in winter, and there are its variable values in autumn and in spring. In accordance with long-term data, the level of the annual average global insolation in Sumy region is 3.16 kW*h/(m2/day) and 1150 kW*h/(m2/year) respectively. On that basis, the annual average global insolation produced by electric power plant with rated capacity 3.0 kW may be 3500 kW*h/year.

With an average time of the light day (~10 hrs), the average daily production of electric energy by the solar power plant will be:

- in summer (minimum cloudiness) — 20 kW*h/day;

- in winter (heavy cloudiness) — 5 kW*h/day;

- in autumn and in spring (medium cloudiness) — 10 kW*h/day.

These indicators of electric power being generated give consumers an opportunity to stop using the centralized generation of electricity power and to provide electric energy for the statistically average house equipped with a refrigerator, TV set, washing machine, microwave oven, air conditioner and other home appliances on their own. Such appliances are possible to be operated in summer practically without restrictions and with short restrictions for simultaneous operation of some power consumers in winter.

Therein the economical efficiency of the solar power plant will be realized in term of the amount of saved funds. For the consumer who uses
~ 300 kW*h/month will receive approximately 6,000 UAH of annual benefit (with the current electric energy tariff being 1.68 UAH/kW*h). Taking into the account the ever-increasing in the electric energy tariffs, total funds savings will increase, thereby reduce the solar power plant payback period.

 

Feed-in tariffs play an important role for reducing the payback period for purchased equipment. The current legislation in Ukraine foresees the possibility to generate electric energy using renewable sources and sale it further into the electrical grid at great tariffs that are closely connected to EUR. The price at which households can sell electric energy is more than three times than the price of electric energy being purchased them for their own needs:
5.54 UAH/kW*h (selling) against 1.68 UAH/kW*h (purchasing). In this case households are only restricted by the maximum power of the electric power plant of 30 kW.

 

Taking into account statistical data, the average payback period of the solar power plant installed in Ukraine is 6-8 years. This period significantly decreases with the solar power plant power increasing and due to using feed-in tariffs.

 

If you would like to install customized solar power plant, skilled professionals of JSC VNIIAEN are ready to propose the full range of services concerning to calculations, completing units of the solar power plant, installation and adjustment of the relevant equipment on a turn-key basis.

Component parts used in our solar power plants will satisfy the needs of any consumer. Their design will depend only on the required technical characteristics of the solar power plant and amount of money you are ready to invest in solar energy.

Solar panels produced by Panasonic, a world-known manufacturer of electronic equipment, consist of unique hybrid solar cells comprising various types of silicon, as well as anti-reflection glass with pyramid texture. This, in turn, increases their energy efficiency compared with conventional solar panels by 10-15%.

Sharp Solar, a division of well-known Japanese company which is one of the pioneers in the field of solar technology, developed and produced (in Germany) solar panels, protected by special tempered glass, similar to those used in the space industry.

Risen Energy, a Chinese company, produces solar panels with improved electrical performance, which, thanks to the protected structure, can be used in regions with unfavorable conditions (polluted, high humidity, etc.).

Along with the "traditional" manufacturers, China and Japan, the production of equipment for solar power plants is becoming more widespread in Europe. So, among our suppliers there is Linuo Ritter International, a German-Chinese concern, which produces "self-cleaning" panels with increased resistance to snow load and corrosion.

SolarDay is a pioneer in manufacturing photovoltaic equipment in Italy. Despite this, its products have a low power protection reduction factor in case of overheating and high reliability.

The solar panels of the Slovenian manufacturer Bisol Group are different from those of other by various colors and special fastener design, which allows them to be placed not only on the roofs of buildings, but also on building faces without sacrificing architectural treatment.

This is not a complete list of manufacturers of solar energy equipment, the products of which we can offer you.

Also, we have ready-made design solutions for solar power plants suited to every fancy, from the cheapest to the elite ones, which, in addition to generating electricity, can be a decoration of your home. Due to accumulators which are installed in the solar power plants offered by us your electrical appliances will be provided with power 24/7, regardless of the time of day or weather conditions.

Here are some ready-made solar power plants for the home and diagrams that reflect the amount of electricity they generate during the year. The cost of components is based on 28 UAH for USD and can be changed at the time of payment. The cost of installation work is approximately 10% of the cost of equipment.

 

Solar power plant for the house (3 kW) - "Economy"

Photovoltaic modules: Amerisolar AS-6P30 280W 5BB - 12 pcs

Total power of photovoltaic modules: 3.3 kW

Required area for installation: 20 m2

Inverter: Altek AKSG-3K-SM (3 kW, 1 phase, 1 MPPT) - 1 pc

Accumulators: Altek GFM100 GEL 12V200AH - 2 pcs

Fasteners: anodized aluminum support, metal items of stainless steel (Ukraine)

Average electric generation per month: 300 kW*h

Total electric generation per year: 3,000 kW*h

Total cost is 90,000 UAH

 

Solar power plant for house (5 kW) - "Optima"

Photovoltaic modules: Risen RSM72-6-345 / 4BB - 15 pcs

Total power of photovoltaic modules: 5.18 kW

Required area for installation: 23 m2

Inverter: Altek AKSG-3K-DM (5 kW, 1 phase, 2 MPPT) - 1 pc

Accumulators: Altek GFM100 GEL 12V100AH - 8 pcs

Fasteners: anodized aluminum support, metal items of stainless steel (Ukraine)

Average electric generation per month: 400 kW*h

Total electric generation per year: 5,000 kW*h

Total cost is 180, 000 UAH

 

 

Solar power plant for house (5 kW) - "Premium"

Photovoltaic modules: BISOL Spectrum Marble Green 250 Wp (Green marble, Slovenia) - 20 pcs

Total power of photovoltaic modules: 5.00 kW

Required area for installation: 30 m2

Inverter: SOLAREDGE SE 5000 (5 kW, 1 phase, optimizer, allowing to track the maximum power point, efficiency-99.9%, Israel) - 1 pc

Accumulators: Pulsar HTL 12-300 (service life 15-20 years, Germany) - 4 pcs

Fasteners: anodized aluminum support, metal items of stainless steel (Ukraine)

Average electric generation per month: 500 kW*h

Total electric generation per year: 7,000 kW*h

Total cost is 300,000 UAH

 

Remote Access Control Systems

 


For more than half a century, the JSC VNIIAEN employees have been developing pumping equipment which is operated at many large nuclear and thermal power facilities, oil, chemical, iron and steel, and food industries as well as is used for oil pipeline transportation and building undergrounds, in municipal and public utilities and in many other fields etc.

Besides the development of pumping equipment, the Institute also develops the control and automation systems for such equipment. Change is all around us, and now the traditional means of automation are increasingly being replaced by microprocessor devices. Many pump units, developed by
JSC VNIAIAEN, are provided with a microprocessor-based control system, which ensures the operation of the process equipment in all operating modes without a constant presence of the attending personnel. At the same time, the control systems allow you to collect and process data on the status of operating mechanisms and automation objects, to monitor process parameters, activate warning signaling and protective shutdown of pump units, if required. Such systems are based on the microprocessor equipment developed by world leaders in this field, namely - Siemens (Germany), Schneider Electric (France), General Electric (USA), Mitsubishi Electric (Japan), etc. The use of the most modern hardware components in combination with our own-developed software makes the control systems truly multi-purpose and real competitive equipment that can be used in a wide range of industries and power economy.

At this stage of development of automated control systems, the systems for remote access and control of process equipment are in great demand. These systems collect and process data in real time. The remote access, if necessary, allows you not only to monitor and control systems, but also make the necessary changes in the algorithms of equipment operation, add new features, evaluate critical parameter values and respond to emergency situations in a timely manner, avoiding costly field visit of specialist.

In order to implement such functions in control systems developing by JSC VNIIAEN, our specialists have mastered the operation of an integration controller that does not have foreign analogues, which is produced by Ukrainian engineering company WebHMI (Dnipro). The use of this device in conjunction with the microprocessor-based control system allows you to monitor and control the process equipment almost anywhere in the world where the Internet or mobile communication is available. At the same time, data received from the controlled object can be stored both locally on a computer and in the Cloud.


The object of the dispatch system can be any object located separately or being a functional part of the production or household infrastructure. To create a remote monitoring and control system, you need only to install a WebHMI controller with a USB 3G modem in a cabinet containing a microprocessor-based hardware. If an automation object has the wireless internet connection or can be connected to the Internet via a cable, the modem is not required. In order to avoid the shielding of signals due to metal cabinet, the modem can be installed outside the cabinet or an external antenna can be connected.

 

You can access to the object dispatch system via a standard web browser from any stationary or mobile device; no specialized software is required for this. Smartphones, tablets, computers can be used to access the system.

 

The WebHMI module installed on a single local object provides users with access to information only of this object. Access to the system is password-protected; therefore, the user of one local object cannot log in the system of another object without authorization. In addition, the WebHMI module maintains a protocol of operator actions in which all actions of the user are recorded, indicating user’s Login and the time of each event.

Also, the WebHMI module can store important data for each object that can be viewed as charts for a selected period of time with the ability to scale, as well as transfer to other applications (Excel, Word, 1C, etc.) using the API or send to shared server for storage and backup.

 

In order to control and monitor a set of distributed objects, you can add multiple WebHMI modules into the Level2 cloud dispatch system. Level2 is a cloud service that allows you to combine any number of objects equipped with WebHMI modules into a shared dispatch system. You can work with the system via a standard web browser, while the user can see a map of the area and objects connected to Level2. The map can display not only the designation of objects but also their state (Norm / Problem / Accident). If necessary, the operator can click on the pointer and go to each individual object to obtain complete information on the object of interest.

 

In addition to combination of a group of distributed objects into the shared dispatch system, Level2 allows you to solve the following problems:

1. Collect combined data of all objects, and use it in the reports and charts, analyze the resource consumption and perform energy audit.

2. Data exchange between the objects, if this is necessary for solving process problems.

3. A simultaneous transfer of data to several objects (or to all objects at once), that can be used for calculations within a local object.

4. Notification of accidents at the facilities by sending SMS messages.

5. User of Level2 creates a personal account to manage the selected services, where you can quickly enable or disable the service to save money on the account.

 

VNIIAEN’s Capabilities in the Field of Software Module Development for Parametric 3D Modeling  

  

 

When developing design documentation within a project, it is important to take into account the relative position of parts for assembling. 3D-model allows a designer to review the project more effective and within a very short time. The use of parametric 3D modeling speeds up the process of developing models due to semi-automatic building of the part, as well as due to the presence of a reference correct set of data (dimensions, associative links). Parameterization allows you to check various designs and avoid fundamental errors.

Computer-aided simulation is one of the CAD methods.

The computer-aided design system is an automated system that provides design automation. It consists of personnel and a set of technical, software and other means to automate its activities.

As part of the life cycle of industrial products , CAD solves the automation tasks at the design and preproduction stages.

The main goal of CAD is to increase the efficiency of engineers’ work, including: 

- the reduction of complexity of designing and planning;

- the reduction of design time;

- the reduction of  cost of designing and manufacturing as well as operating  costs;

- the improvement of quality and technical and economic level of design outputs;

- the reduction of modeling and testing costs. 

These goals are achieved by: 

- automation of paperwork;

- information support and automation of the decision-making process;

- use of concurrent design technologies;

- unification of design solutions and processes;

- reuse of design solutions, data and work results;

- strategic design;

- replacement of field tests and prototyping with mathematical modeling;

- improvement of quality of design management;

- application of alternative design and optimization methods. 

Parametric modeling (parametrization) is a modeling (designing) process involving parameters of the model elements and relations between these parameters.
There are the following types of parameterization: 

1.1.1 Table parameterization

The table parameterization creates a table of parameters for typical parts. A new part is created by selecting sizes from the table of standard sizes. The possibilities of table parameterization are very limited, since the setting of arbitrary new parameters and geometric relations is usually impossible.

However, the table parametrization is widely used in all parametric CAD systems, since it allows you to significantly simplify and speed up the creation of libraries of standard parts, as well as their use in the designing process.

 1.2 Hierarchical parameterization

The hierarchical parametrization (parametrization based on the history of building) is that during the model building, the entire sequence of the actions is displayed in a separate window in the form of “tree”. It lists all auxiliary components that exist in the model, rough sketches, and the operations performed in the order in which they were created.

In addition to the “tree” of the model, the system storages not only the order of its formation, but also the hierarchy of its elements (relations between the elements). Example: assembly → subassembly → parts.

Parameterization based on the history of building is present in all CAD systems, using three-dimensional solid parametric modeling. Typically, this type of parametric modeling is combined with variational and/or geometric parametrization.

 1.3 Variational (dimensional) parameterization

The variational or dimensional parametrization is based on the building of sketches (with the imposing various parametric relations on the objects of the sketch) and the imposition by the user of constraints in the form of a system of equations determining the dependencies between the parameters.

The process of creating a parametric model using variational parameterization is as follows: 

-At the first stage, a sketch (profile) is created for a three-dimensional operation. Next, the necessary parametric relations are imposed on the sketch..

- Then the sketch is “sized”, the individual sizes of the profile are refined. At this stage, individual sizes can be specified as variables (for example, the parameter denoting the length of a certain part, is assigned the name "Length") and the dependencies of other dimensions on these variables can be specified as an equation (for example, "Radius = Length/2").

- Then a three-dimensional operation is performed (for example, extrusion), the value of the attributes of the operation also serves as a parameter (for example, value of extrusion).

- The relative position of the components of the diffuser (casing and channels) is specified by setting the interface between them (the perpendicularity of the elements, the arrangement of objects at an angle to each other). 

Variational parametrization allows you to easily change the shape of the sketch or the value of the parameters of operations, which allows you to conveniently modify the three-dimensional model.

 1.4 Geometric parametrization

Geometric parametrization is called parametric modeling, in which the geometry of each parametric object is recalculated depending on the position of the parent objects, its parameters and variables.

The parametric model, in the case of geometric parametrization, consists of building and imagine elements. Building elements (design lines) define parametric relations. The image elements include lines of the image (which are surrounded by design lines), as well as design elements (dimensions, inscriptions, hatching, etc.).

Some building elements may depend on other building elements. Building elements can also contain parameters (for example, the radius of a circle or the angle of inclination of a straight line). When one of the elements of the model changes, all the elements depending on it are rebuilt in accordance with their parameters and the ways in which they are set.

The process of creating a parametric model using the geometric parametrization method is as follows: 

- At the first stage, the designer sets the profile geometry with design lines and marks key points.

- Next, the dimensions are marked between the design lines. At this stage, you can specify the dependence of the sizes from each other.

- Then the design lines are outlined with lines of the image thus a profile is obtained with which you can perform various three-dimensional operations. 

The subsequent stages are generally similar to the process of modeling by the method of variation parameterization.

Geometric parametrization allows for more flexible editing of models. If it is necessary to introduce an unplanned change, then it is not necessary to delete the original construction lines in the geometry of model (this may lead to the loss of associative relations between the model elements), you can draw a new construction line and transfer the image line on it.

Engineers of the Institute are engaged in the development of 3D-models of parts for pumping equipment. . 3D-models are developed to be used for: 

- creation of a drawing from a 3D model;

- design review of the project;

- strength analysis;

- hydraulic analysis;

- programming CNC machines when milling the finished part;

- programming CNC machines for tooling;

- three-dimensional printing. 

Figure 1 - The Main Window of Program for Building Diffuser

Figure 2 - Sketching Window

 In 2018, the team of the CAD sector developed a software module for the parametric modeling of a 3D-model of diffuser..

he main window of the program (Fig. 1) shows the steps of building a model of the diffuser (according to the method of geometric parameterization).

First, it is necessary to consistently build sketches of diffuser and reverse channels, indicating on the form (Fig. 2) the necessary elements for building.

As a result of the module operation, we will get the generated sketches for further building (Fig. 3).

The next stage is to build a part of the diffuser casing to create on its basis a return channel. It is necessary to specify the dimensions for the body on the form (Fig. 4). After executing the program, we will get the finished part of the casing (Fig. 5).


Figure 3 – Channel Sketch Building
 

Figure 4 - Window for Dimension Selection of Casing для корпуса

Figure 5 - Casing Building

 

Next, using the module, the bodies of the return, diffuser, and cross-over channels are created.

Then, the body of the diffuser is built by removing water from the additional body; cuts are made in accordance with the main section of the diffuser drawing. Next all chamfers and fillets, grooves and holes of diffuser are built. This is followed by machining the diffuser.

As a result, we obtain a ready-made 3D model of the diffuser (Fig. 6 and Fig. 7).

Figure 6 - The ready-made model of the diffuser (view 1)


Figure 7 - The ready-made model of the diffuser (view 2)

 

VNIIAEN develops software for CAD systems, solutions that increase the efficiency of computer-aided design process. We are working on the implementation of new features for 3D modeling by expanding the standard functionality of products for CAD systems.

The parametric 3D models of the following parts were developed and successfully operated:

- coupling;

- cap nut;

- rotor parts;

- nipple;

- distributor;

- flange;

- pipe union;

- diffuser. 

Our team will do for you the following works: 

- development of 3D model (including parts of complex geometry - blades, castings, etc., using surface modeling methods);

- parametrization of part model (using program methods and user interfaces in the VBA, C#, C++ programming languages);

- parametrization of assembly model (using program methods and user interfaces in the VBA, C#, C++ programming languages). 

Our team of highly qualified specialists always strives to fulfill the individual requirements of their customers in the most effective way.